Chapter 10: Foodable, not druggable — References

Page 152
“associated with type 2 diabetes”
L. Schwingshackl et al. “Food Groups and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 32  (2017): 363.
“especially because of effects in the mitochondria”
J.M. Schwarz et al. “Impact of Dietary Fructose Restriction on Liver Fat, De Novo Lipogenesis, and Insulin Kinetics in Children with Obesity,” Gastroenterology 153  (2017): 743.
“especially because of effects in the mitochondria”
S. Softic et al. “Dietary Sugars Alter Hepatic Fatty Acid Oxidation Via Transcriptional and Post-Translational Modifications of Mitochondrial Proteins,” Cell Metab. 30 (4) (2019): 735.
“radicals with processed food than with Real Food”
M. Edeas et al. “Maillard Reaction, Mitochondria and Oxidative Stress: Potential Role of Antioxidants,” Pathologie Biologie 58  (2010): 220.
“the degree of food processing that predicts diabetes”
B. Srour et al. “Ultraprocessed Food Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Participants of the Nutrinet-Santé Prospective Cohort,” JAMA Intern. Med. 180 (2) (2019): 283.
“could prevent deaths from coronary events”
A. Keech et al. “Effects of Long-Term Fenofibrate Therapy on Cardiovascular Events in 9795 People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (the Field Study): Randomised Controlled Trial,” Lancet 366,2005 (2005): 1849.
“it’s not as clear what fibrates really do”
A. Keech et al. “Correction to the Field Study Report,” Lancet 368 (9545) (2006): 1415.
“as well if not better than statins”
Y. Hu et al. “Marine Omega-3 Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease: An Updated Meta-Analysis of 13 Randomized Controlled Trials Involving 127 477 Participants,” J Am Heart Assoc. 8 (19) (2019): e013543.
“It’s processed food that foments heart disease risk”
B. Srour et al. “Ultra-Processed Food Intake and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Prospective Cohort Study (Nutrinet-Santé),” BMJ 365 (2019): l1451.
“making it more likely to get a clot”
H.H. Harith et al. “Insulin Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis Via Differential Regulation of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand,” J. Diabetes 8 (4) (2016): 568.
Page 153

“exclusive of calories or obesity”

Q. Yang et al. “Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality among U.S. Adults,” JAMA Int. Med. 174 (4) (2014): 516.


“all protective against heart disease”

A. Gugliucci et al. “Short-Term Isocaloric Fructose Restriction Lowers ApoC-III Levels and Yields Less Atherogenic Lipoprotein Profiles in Children with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome,” Atherosclerosis 253  (2016): 171.


“NAFLD is now the leading cause of liver transplant in the US”

M. Noureddin et al. “NASH Leading Cause of Liver Transplant in Women: Updated Analysis of Indications for Liver Transplant and Ethnic and Gender Variances,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 113 (11) (2018): 1649.


“It was unheard of prior to 1980”

J. Ludwig et al. “Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis: Mayo Clinic Experience with a Hitherto Unnamed  Disease,” Mayo Clin. Proc. 55  (1980): 434.


“40 percent of the adult US population”

A.R. Araújo et al. “Global Epidemiology of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis: What We Need in the Future,” Liver Int. 38 Suppl 1  (2018): 47.


“the best of them demonstrated only a 10 to 30 percent success rate”

K. Thanapirom and E.A. Tsochatzis. “Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and the Quest for Effective Treatments,” Hepatobiliary Surg. Nutr. 8 (1) (2019): 77.


“at least in part by processed food and drinks”

Y.L. Fang et al. “Pathogenesis of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescence: From “Two Hit Theory” to “Multiple Hit Model”,” World J. Gastroenterol. 24  (2018): 2974.


“an independent predic- tor of NAFLD”

A. Mosca et al. “Beverage Consumption and Paediatric NAFLD,” Eat. Weight Disord. 21  (2016): 581.

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“the instigator of both is sugar”

J.A. Weintraub et al. “Oral Diseases Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the United States,” J. Dent. Res. 98 (11) (2019): 1219.


“periodontitis, which affects half of all Americans”

M.A. Nazir. “Prevalence of Periodontal Disease, Its Association with Systemic Diseases and Prevention,” Int. J. Health Sci. 11 (2) (2017): 72.


“periodontitis, which affects half of all Americans”

I. Spreadbury. “Comparison with Ancestral Diets Suggests Dense Acellular Carbohydrates Promote an Inflammatory Microbiota, and May Be the Primary Dietary Cause of Leptin Resistance and Obesity,” Diabetes Metab. Syndr. Obes. 5  (2012): 175.


“there are defined mechanisms linking the two”

H.A. Schenkein and B.G. Loos. “Inflammatory Mechanisms Linking Periodontal Diseases to Cardiovascular Diseases,” J. Periodontol. 84 Suppl 4  (2013): S51.


“has been associated with the development of Alzheimer’s”

B.F. Bale et al. “High-Risk Periodontal Pathogens Contribute to the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis,” Postgrad. Med. J. 93  (2017): 215.


“brains of people who died from it”

S.S. Dominy et al. “Porphyromonas gingivalis in Alzheimer’s Disease Brains: Evidence for Disease Causation and Treatment with Small-Molecule Inhibitors,” Sci. Adv. 5 (1) (2019): eaau3333.


“regardless of calories or obesity”

T. Fiolet et al. “Consumption of Ultra-Processed Foods and Cancer Risk: Results from Nutrinet-Santé Prospective Cohort,” BMJ 360  (2018): k322.


“and pancreatic cancer”

N. Tasevska et al. “Sugars in Diet and Risk of Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study,” Int. J. Cancer 130  (2012): 159.


“It also increases risk for cancer recurrence”

M.A. Fuchs et al. “Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance),” PLoS One 9 (6) (2014): e99816.


“by increasing insulin release”

J. Hu et al. “Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load and Cancer Risk,” Ann. Oncol. 24  (2013): 245.


“known to cause colon cancer and breast cancer”

A. Diallo et al. “Red and Processed Meat Intake and Cancer Risk: Results from the Prospective Nutrinet-Santé Cohort Study,” Int. J. Cancer 142  (2018): 230.


“did you know that fiber can also prevent breast cancer”

S. Sulaiman et al. “Dietary Carbohydrate, Fiber and Sugar and Risk of Breast Cancer According to Menopausal Status in Malaysia,” Asian Pac. J.Cancer Prev. 15  (2014): 5959.

Page 155

“low-carb diets in many cancer treatment plans”

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. “A Study of the Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Endometrial Cancer in Newly Diagnosed Overweight or Obese Patients,”


“low-carb diets in many cancer treatment plans”

M.D. Anderson Medical Center. “Controlled Dietary Interventions in Patients with Melanoma,” 


“that there’ve been 146 failed trials”

M. Terry.  “A Long Line of Alzheimer’s Failures: Roche Drops Two Drug Trials,” (BioSpace, 2020).


“more likely to develop dementia than the general population”

G.J. Biessels and F. Despa. “Cognitive Decline and Dementia in Diabetes Mellitus: Mechanisms and Clinical Implications,” Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 14 (10) (2018): 591.


“because insulin resistance affects the brain”

B.J. Neth and S. Craft. “Insulin Resistance and Alzheimer’s Disease: Bioenergetic Linkages,” Front. Aging Neurosci. 9 (2017): 345.


“sugar consumption is associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease”

M.P. Pase et al. “Sugary Beverage Intake and Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease in the Community,” Alzheimers Dement. 13 (9) (2017): 955.


“reducing energy generation”

R. Agrawal and F. Gomez-Pinilla. “‘Metabolic Syndrome’ in the Brain: Deficiency in Omega-3 Fatty Acid Exacerbates Dysfunctions in Insulin Receptor Signaling and Cognition,” J. Physiol. 590 (10) (2012): 2485.


“shown to be predictive of future Alzheimer’s disease”

V. Berti et al. “Nutrient Patterns and Brain Biomarkers of Alzheimer’s Disease in Cognitively Normal Individuals,” J. Nutr. Health Aging 19 (4) (2015): 413.

Page 158

“treatment of rheumatoid arthritis”

E. Philippou and E. Nikiphorou. “Are We Really What We Eat? Nutrition and Its Role in the Onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis,” Autoimmun. Rev. 17 (11) (2018): 1074.


“improving gut function and reducing inflammation”

J. Folkerts et al. “Effect of Dietary Fiber and Metabolites on Mast Cell Activation and Mast Cell-Associated Diseases,” Front. Immunol. 9  (2018): 1067.


“cause of clinical depression in humans”

K. Watson et al. “Insulin Resistance, an Unmasked Culprit in Depressive Disorders: Promises for Interventions,” Neuropharmacology 136 Pt B  (2018): 327.


“depression in both rats”

A.B. Gueye et al. “Unlimited Sucrose Consumption During Adolescence Generates a Depressive-Like Phenotype in Adulthood,” Neuropsychopharmacology 43 (13) (2018): 2627.


“and humans”

A. Sanchez-Villegas et al. “Added Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Dietary Carbohydrate Index and Depression Risk in the Seguimiento Universidad De Navarra (SUN) Project,” Br. J. Nutr. 119 (2) (2018): 211.


“one in Europe”

C. Gómez-Donoso et al. “Ultra-Processed Food Consumption and the Incidence of Depression in a Mediterranean Cohort: The SUN Project,” Eur. J. Nutr. 59 (3) (2020): 1093.


“and one in China”

X. Zhang et al. “Daily Intake of Soft Drinks Is Associated with Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Chinese Adolescents,” Pub. Health Nutr. 22 (14) (2019): 2553.


“Sami Inkinen tried”

S. Inkinen.  “Fat Chance Row,” (2013)


“Zillow for $2.5 billion”

J. Cook.  “Zillow Closes $2.5 Billion Acquisition of Trulia, Plans to Cut 350 Staffers.” GeekWire, Feb 17, 2015.


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