View Dr. Robert Lustig’s
Powerpoint presentation
by clicking on the image above.

“The foods most at risk happen to be those most processed, dense in calories, highest in profit margin, and sold mainly by the major industry players.” 

Kelly Brownell & Kenneth Warner

The Perils of Ignoring History: Big Tobacco Played Dirty and Millions Died. How Similar Is Big Food?

Processed Food: An Experiment That Failed

Anyone who follows the work of Dr. Robert Lustig knows he has been talking about the health issues related to processed food for years. Just enter “Robert Lustig” and “Processed Food” into your search engine and you will find many references to his advocacy efforts in this area of metabolic health and nutrition. Is processed food an experiment that failed? Processed food, alias “Big Food” has hacked our happiness and uses propaganda and misinformation to addict millions to foods that destroy their health. Read, view and learn from the resources posted here, and decide for yourself.

“Many industries have marketed dangerous products to unsuspecting consumers, but no industry has provided more disinformation than the processed food industry. And no ingredient has fueled more morbidity, mortality, and economic havoc than sugar.” 
Read: Big Food’s Poisonous Propaganda

Here is excerpt from Dr. Lustig’s paper in JAMA Pediatrics – Viewpoint: Processed Food: An Experiment That Failed

“Those of us who have participated in science know that 9 of every 10 experiments are failures. Now imagine that the last 50 years has been a grand clinical research experiment, with the American population as unwitting participants, conducted by 10 principal investigators—Coca-Cola, Pepsico, Kraft, Unilever, General Mills, Nestlé, Mars, Kellogg, Proctor & Gamble, and Johnson & Johnson. In 1965, these corporations posed the hypothesis that processed food is better than real food. To determine if the experiment was a success or a failure, we have to examine the outcome variables. In this case, there are 4: food consumption, health/disease, environment, and cash flow, divided into companies, consumers, and society.” 
Here are two key presentations by Dr. Lustig at Stanford and the international Eat Forum:


Stanford University

Is a Calorie a Calorie? Processed Food, Experiment Gone Wrong


Eat Forum – Stockholm

Processed food: an experiment that failed

With Crossfit in San Francisco

Dr. Lustig: Type 2 Diabetes Is “Processed Food Disease”

Have less than 5 minutes?

See Dr. Lustig nail it on FoodNavigator.Com (click here).

Understand Processed Food and Processed Food Addiction from a Scientific Perspective

  1. Establishment of NOVA Food Classification framework, developed by team at University of San Paulo under the leadership of Professor Carlos Monteiro) 
    NOVA system identifies four categories of processed food: 1. Unprocessed or minimally processed foods, 2. Processed culinary ingredients, 3. Processed foods, 4. Ultra-processed food and drink products.
  2. A new classification of foods based on the extent and purpose of their processing, by Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Renata Bertazzi Levy, Rafael Moreira Claro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de Castro, and Geoffrey Cannon
  3. Processed Food Addiction: Foundation, Assessment & Recovery by Joan Ifland, PhD
  4. Processed foods and food reward by Dana M. Small & Alexandra G. DiFeliceantonio
  5. Characterisation of UK diets according to degree of food processing and associations with socio-demographics and obesity: cross-sectional analysis of UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008–12) by Jean Adams and Martin White 
    “This is the first study we are aware of to explore correlates of processed food consumption, using individual-level data from a large, national cross-sectional sample. Unprocessed and minimally processed foods, and diets relatively high in these foods, tended to have the most healthful nutritional profile.”
  6. Association Between Ultraprocessed Food Consumption and Risk of Mortality Among Middle-aged Adults in France by Laure Schnabel, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, and Benjamin Allès

Articles & Links

  1. The Perils of Ignoring History: Big Tobacco Played Dirty and Millions Died. How Similar Is Big Food? – Kelly Brownell & Kenneth Warner
  2. 11 Ways Processed Food Is Different from Real Food by Sara Miller in LiveScience
  3. ‘Ultraprocessed’ Foods Make Up More Than Half of Americans’ Diets by Sara Miller in LiveScience
  4. The Role of the Food Industry in Creating Food Addiction – Michael Moss and Dr. Mark Hyman
  5. The road to Alzheimer’s disease is lined with processed foods by Dr. Lisa Mosconi in Quartz
  6. Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries, Lancet
  7. Lethal But Legal: Corporations, Consumption, and Protecting Public Health by Nicholas Freudenberg 
  8. Chronic Disease, Changing Diets and Sustainability The Globalization of Western-style Eating and Its Implications
  9. The big issue is ultra-processing, by Carlos Monteiro
  10. ‘Ultra-processed’ food is obesogenic and must be made less available & affordable, say researchers
  11. The Dorito Effect by Mark Schatzker
  12. Ultra-Processed Foods a Huge Chunk of American Diet by Ashley Welch, CBS News
  13. The United States has an Epidemic of Processed Food — and it’s Killing Us by Manya Goldstein, Medium / Health
  14. Eating ‘ultraprocessed’ foods accelerates your risk of early death, study says by Susan Scutti, CNN
  15. Modern diets could be killing us, suggests major study on ultra-processed foods by Laura Donnelly, The Telegraph
  16. Here’s why you don’t feel full after eating junk food, Huffington Post
  17. Processed Foods Make Up 70% of the U.S. Diet, Marketplace News
  18. Inside the food industry: the surprising truth about what you eat, The Guardian
  19. Energy drinks and junk food are destroying teenage brain development, The Big Think
  20. A New Theory of Obesity: “Ultraprocessed” foods seem to trigger neural signals that make us want more and more calories, unlike other foods in the Western diet

Research

  1. Americans’ Perceptions about Fast Food and How They Associate with Its Consumption and Obesity Risk
  2. Too Impatient to Smell the Roses: Exposure to Fast Food Impedes Happiness
  3. Frequency of Junk Food and Depression in Children
  4. The link between food and mental health, American Psychological Association
  5. Food Addiction Research (FARE): http://foodaddictionresearch.org/
  6. Ultra-Processed Foods: Definitions and Policy Issues, Michael J Gibney, Current Developments in Nutrition.

Books


Food Addiction Resources


Robert Lustig Presentations

Nutrition Education

References from the paper “Ultra-processed foods: what they are and how to identify them”

  1. BaraldiLGMartinez SteeleEMCanellaDS et al. (2018Consumption of ultra-processed foods and associated sociodemographic factors in the USA between 2007 and 2012: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional studyBMJ Open 8e020574. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  2. MoubaracJ-CBatalMLouzadaML et al. (2017Consumption of ultra-processed foods predicts diet quality in CanadaAppetite 108512520. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  3. RauberFLouzadaMLCSteeleEM et al. (2018Ultra-processed food consumption and chronic non-communicable diseases-related dietary nutrient profile in the UK (2008–2014)Nutrients 10E587. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  4. LouzadaMLDCRicardoCZSteeleEM et al. (2018The share of ultra-processed foods determines the overall nutritional quality of diets in Brazil.Public Health Nutr 2194102. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  5. Marrón-PonceJASánchez-PimientaTGLouzadaM et al. (2018Energy contribution of NOVA food groups and sociodemographic determinants of ultra-processed food consumption in the Mexican populationPublic Health Nutr 218793. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  6. CedielGReyesMda Costa LouzadaML et al. (2018Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the Chilean diet (2010)Public Health Nutr 21,125133. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  7. MonteiroCAMoubaracJCCannonG et al. (2013Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food systemObes Rev 142128. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  8. LouzadaMLCMartinsAPBCanellaDS et al. (2015Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian dietRev Saude Publica 4945. Google Scholar | PubMed
  9. Costa LouzadaMLMartinsAPCanellaDS et al. (2015Ultra-processed foods and the nutritional dietary profile in BrazilRev Saude Publica 45,38. Google Scholar
  10. MonteiroCALevyRBClaroRM et al. (2011Increasing consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health: evidence from BrazilPublic Health Nutr 14513. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  11. MoubaracJCMartinsAPClaroRM et al. (2013Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from CanadaPublic Health Nutr 1622402248. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  12. PotiJMMendezMANgSW et al. (2015Is the degree of food processing and convenience linked with the nutritional quality of foods purchased by US households? Am J Clin Nutr 10112511262. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  13. LuitenCMSteenhuisIHEylesH et al. (2016Ultra-processed foods have the worst nutrient profile, yet they are the most available packaged products in a sample of New Zealand supermarketsPublic Health Nutr 19530538. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  14. FardetA (2016Minimally processed foods are more satiating and less hyperglycemic than ultra-processed foods: a preliminary study with 98 ready-to-eat foodsFood Funct 723382346. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  15. ZinöckerMK & LindsethIA (2018The Western diet–microbiome–host interaction and its role in metabolic diseaseNutrients 10E365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar | PubMed
  16. Martinez SteeleEBaraldiLGLouzadaML et al. (2016Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional studyBMJ Open 6e009892. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  17. JuliaCMartinezLAllèsB et al. (2018Contribution of ultra-processed foods in the diet of adults from the French NutriNet-Santé studyPublic Health Nutr 212737. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  18. Martínez SteeleERaubenheimerDSimpsonSJ et al. (2018Ultra-processed foods, protein leverage and energy intake in the USAPublic Health Nutr 21114124. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  19. SteeleEMPopkinBSwinburnB et al. (2017The share of ultra-processed foods and the overall nutritional quality of diets in the US: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional studyPopul Health Metr 156. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  20. LouzadaMLCBaraldiLCSteeleEM et al. (2015Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adultsPrev Med 81815. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  21. MendonçaRPimentaAGeaA et al. (2016Ultra-processed foods consumption and risk of overweight/obesity: the SUN cohort studyAm J Clin Nutr 10414331440. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  22. Filippa JuulFSteeleEMParekhN et al. (2018Ultra-processed food consumption and excess weight among US adultsBr J Nutr 12090100. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  23. NardocciMLeclercB-SLouzadaML et al. (2019) Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Canada. Can J Public Health 110414. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  24. MendonçaRLopesAPimentaAM et al. (2017Ultraprocessed food consumption and the incidence of hypertension in a Mediterranean cohort: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra ProjectAm J Hypertens 30358366. Google Scholar
  25. SrourBFezeuLKesse-GuyotE et al. (2018) Consommation d’aliments ultra-transformés et risque de maladies cardiovasculaires dans la cohorte NutriNet-Santé. In Livre des abstracts, Journée Francophone de Nutrition, Nice, France, 28–30 Novembre 2018, p. 61. Levallois-Perret: JFN 2018/MCI France. Google Scholar
  26. RauberFCampagnoloPDBHoffmanDJ et al. (2015Consumption of ultra-processed food products and its effects on children’s lipid profiles: a longitudinal studyNutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 25116122. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  27. Lavigne-RobichaudMMoubaracJ-CLantagne-LopezS et al. (2018Diet quality indices in relation to metabolic syndrome in an Indigenous Cree (Eeyouch) population in northern Québec, CanadaPublic Health Nutr 21172180. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  28. SchnabelLBuscailCSabateJ-M et al. (2018Association between ultra-processed food consumption and functional gastrointestinal disorders: results from the French NutriNet-Santé CohortAm J Gastroenterol 11312171228. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  29. FioletTSrourBSellemL et al. (2018Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort.BMJ 360k322. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  30. MonteiroCACannonGMoubaracJ-C et al. (2015Dietary guidelines to nourish humanity and the planet in the twenty-first century. A blueprint from BrazilPublic Health Nutr 1823112322. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  31. Ministerio de Salud (2016) Guía Alimentaria para la Población Uruguaya.http://msp.gub.uy/sites/default/files/archivos_adjuntos/MS_guia_web.pdf (accessed November 2018). Google Scholar
  32. Pan American Health Organization (2015Ultra-Processed Food and Drink Products in Latin America: Trends, Impact on Obesity, Policy Implications. Washington, DC: PAHO; available at http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=11153%3Aultra-processed-food-and-drinkproducts&catid=4999%3Adocuments&lang=en  Google Scholar
  33. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2015Guidelines on the Collection of Information on Food Processing Through Food Consumption Surveys. Rome: FAO; available at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4690e.pdf  Google Scholar
  34. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations & Food Climate Research Network (2016Plates, Pyramids, Planet. Developments in National Healthy and Sustainable Dietary Guidelines: A State of Play Assessment. Rome/Oxford: FAO/University of Oxford; available athttp://www.fao.org/3/a-i5640e.pdf  Google Scholar
  35. Pan American Health Organization (2018Ultra-Processed Food and Drink Products in Latin America: Sales, Sources, Nutrient Profiles and Policy Implications. Washington, DC: PAHO (In the Press). Google Scholar
  36. NestleM (2010) How ultra-processed foods are killing us. The Atlantic, 4 November. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2010/11/how-ultra-processed-foods-are-killing-us/65614/ (accessed November 2018). Google Scholar
  37. WelchA (2016) ‘Ultra-processed foods’ a huge chunk of American diet. CBS News, 10 March. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/ultra-processed-foods-calories-american-diet/ (accessed November 2018). Google Scholar
  38. BoseleyS (2018) ‘Ultra-processed’ products now half of all UK family food purchases. The Guardian, 2 February.https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/feb/02/ultra-processed-products-now-half-of-all-uk-family-food-purchases (accessed November 2018). Google Scholar
  39. BoseleyS (2018) Ultra-processed foods may be linked to cancer, says study. The Guardian, 14 February.https://www.theguardian.com/science/2018/feb/14/ultra-processed-foods-may-be-linked-to-cancer-says-study (accessed November 2018). Google Scholar
  40. MonteiroCACannonGMoubaracJ-C et al. (2018The UN Decade of Nutrition, the NOVA food classification and the trouble with ultra-processingPublic Health Nutr 21517. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  41. MoubaracJ-CParraDCannonG et al. (2014Food classification systems based on food processing: significance and implications for policies and actions: a systematic literature review and assessmentCurr Obes Rep 3256272. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  42. SofiFAbbateRGensiniGF et al. (2010Accruing evidence on benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet on health: an updated systematic review and meta-analysisAm J Clin Nutr 9211891196. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  43. ShoH (2001History and characteristics of Okinawan longevity foodAsia Pac J Clin Nutr 10159164. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  44. JungSJParkSHChoiEK et al. (2014Beneficial effects of Korean traditional diets in hypertensive and type 2 diabetic patientsJ Med Food 17,161171. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  45. MoubaracJCBatalMMartinsAP et al. (2014Processed and ultra-processed food products: consumption trends in Canada from 1938 to 2011.Can J Diet Pract Res 751521. CrossRef | Google Scholar | PubMed
  46. MonteiroCA & CannonG (2012The impact of transnational ‘big food’ companies on the South: a view from BrazilPLoS Med 9e1001252. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  47. MoodieRStucklerDMonteiroCA et al. (2013Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries. Non-communicable Diseases Series 4Lancet 381670679. CrossRef | Google Scholar
  48. Food and Agriculture Organization & World Health Organization (2017) International Food Standards. Codex Alimentarius. Class and Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives. Adopted 1989. Revision 2008. Amendment: FAO/WHO. http://www.fao.org/tempref/codex/Meetings/CCFAC/ccfac31/INS_e.pdf (accessed November 2018). Google Scholar
  49. Food and Agriculture Organization & World Health Organization (n.d.) FAO/WHO Food Standards. Codex Alimentarius. GSFA online. http://www.fao.org/gsfaonline/additives/results.html (accessed November 2018). Google Scholar
  50. Open Food Facts (2018) List of NOVA groups – World. https://world.openfoodfacts.org/nova-groups (accessed November 2018). Google Scholar