Chapter 2: Modern Medicine treats symptoms, not disease — References

Page 35

“it wasn’t a risk factor”

W.P. Castelli. “Cholesterol and Lipids in the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease—the Framingham Heart Study,” Can. J. Cardiol. 4 Suppl A (1988): 5A.


“and risk at the high end”

A.J. Vallejo-Vaz et al. “Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Lowering for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease among Men with Primary Elevations of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels of 190 mg/dL or Above: Analyses from the WOSCOPS (West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study) 5-Year Randomized Trial and 20-Year Observational Follow-Up,” Circulation 136 (20) (2017): 1878.


“who will suffer a heart attack”

U. Ravnskov et al. “LDL-C Does Not Cause Cardiovascular Disease: A Comprehensive Review of the Current Literature,” Expert Rev. Clin. Pharmacol. 11 (10) (2018): 959.


“in risk for a heart attack”

A. Langsted and B.G. Nordestgaard. “Lipoprotein(a): Is It More, Less or Equal to LDL as a Causal Factor for Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality?,” Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 31 (3) (2020): 125.


“doesn’t mean causation”

R. DuBroff. “Cholesterol Paradox: A Correlate Does Not a Surrogate Make,” Evidence-Based Medicine 22 (1) (2017): 15.


“levels correlate with longevity”

U. Ravnskov et al. “Lack of an Association or an Inverse Association between Low-Density-Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Mortality in the Elderly: A Systematic Review,” BMJ Open 6 (2016): e010401.


“haven’t change appreciably”

P. Muntner et al. “Trends in the Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of High Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol among United States Adults from 1999-2000 through 2009-2010,” Am. J. Cardiol. 112 (5) (2013): 664.

Page 36

“high mortality rates”

G.A. Roth et al. “Demographic and Epidemiologic Drivers of Global Cardiovascular Mortality,” N. Engl. J. Med. 372 (14) (2015): 1333.


“people are suffering”

P. Bhatnagar et al. “Trends in the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease in the U.K.,” Heart 102 (2016): 1945.


“than before”

P.J. Schreiner et al. “Twenty-Five Year Secular Trends in Lipids and Modifiable Risk Factors in a Population-Based Biracial Cohort: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, 1985-2011,” J. Am. Heart Assoc. 5 (7) (2016): e003384.


“to heart disease”

W.C. Cromwell et al. “LDL Particle Number and Risk of Future Cardiovascular Disease in the Framingham Offspring Study – Implications for LDL Management,” J. Clin. Lipidol. 1  (2007): 583.


“perpetrator of the plaque”

P.A. Gerber et al. “Small, Dense LDL: An Update,” Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 32 (2017): 454.


“perpetrator of the plaque”

P.A. Gerber et al. “Small, Dense LDL: An Update,” Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 32 (2017): 454.


“is the problematic particle”

T. Nishikido et al. “High-Dose Statin Therapy with Rosuvastatin Reduces Small Dense LDL and MDA-LDL: The Standard Versus High-Dose Therapy with Rosuvastatin for Lipid Lowering (SARD) Trial,” J. Cardiol. 67 (2016): 340.


“discontinue their medicine”

S. Dunlevy. ABC’s Catalyst Program: Cholesterol Will Kill People. (Sydney:Australian Broadcasting Company, 2013).


“discontinue their medicine”

O. Lerche.  “Statins Are ‘Safe’: Life-Saving Benefits of Cholesterol-Busting Drugs Outweigh Risks.” Express UK, Sept 9, 2016.


“Without a doubt they don’t!”

N.J. Stone et al. “ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines 2013,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 63 (2014): 2889.

Page 45

“develop kidney disease”

J.M. Steinke and M. Mauer. “International Diabetic Nephropathy Study Group. Lessons Learned from Studies of the Natural History of Diabetic Nephropathy in Young Type 1 Diabetic Patients,” Pediatr. Endocrinol. Rev. 5 Suppl 4 (2008): 958.


“levels start to rise”

Y.I. Kim et al. “Microalbuminuria Is Associated with the Insulin Resistance Syndrome Independent of Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes in the Korean Population,” Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 52 (2) (2001): 145.


“Diabetes Study (UKPDS)”

H.S. Seltzer. “A Summary of Criticisms of the Findings and Conclusions of the University Group Diabetes Program (UGDP),” Diabetes 21  (1972): 976.


“Study (ACCORD)”

The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. “Effects of Intensive Glucose Lowering in Type 2 Diabetes,” N. Engl. J. Med. 358 (24) (2008): 2545.


“effects of rosiglitazone”

S.E. Nissen and K. Wolski. “Effect of Rosiglitazone on the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Death from Cardiovascular Causes,” N. Engl. J. Med. 356 (24) (2007): 2457.


“Diabetes Trial (VADT)”

S.N. Davis et al. “Effects of Severe Hypoglycemia on Cardiovascular Outcomes and Death in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial,” Diab. Care 42 (1) (2019): 157.


“Evaluation (ADVANCE)”

S.C. van Steen et al. “Haemoglobin Glycation Index and Risk for Diabetes-Related Complications in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) Trial,” Diabetologia 61 (4) (2018): 780.


Subscribe for news and updates...

Join this mailing list to receive the latest news and updates from Dr. Robert Lustig.

You have Successfully Subscribed!