Chapter 8: Checkpoints Alpha, Bravo, Charlie: nutrient-sensing and chronic disease — References

Page 124

“Doesn’t every cell need oxygen”

D.C. Wallace. “Mitochondria and Cancer: Warburg Addressed,” Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 70  (2005): 363.


“99 percent of the bacteria in our intestine, called obligate anaerobes, don’t need oxygen”

J. Lloyd-Price et al. “The Healthy Human Microbiome,” Genome Med. 8  (2016): 51.

Page 129

“will keep mitochondria functioning optimally”

A. Woods et al. “Liver-Specific Activation of AMPK Prevents Steatosis on a High-Fructose Diet,” Cell Rep. 18 (13) (2017): 3043.


“and improve insulin sensitivity”

B. Viollet et al. “Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Metformin: An Overview,” Clin. Sci. 122  (2012): 253.


“Sugar, of course”

A. Gugliucci. “Fructose Surges Damage Hepatic Adenosyl-Monophosphate-Dependent Kinase and Lead to Increased Lipogenesis and Hepatic Insulin Resistance,” Med. Hypotheses 93: 87.


“Sugar, of course”

A. Erkin-Cakmak et al. “Isocaloric Fructose Restriction Reduces Serum d-Lactate Concentration in Children with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome,” J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019; 104 (7) (2019): 3003.


“That’s the job of the third checkpoint called mTOR”

R.A. Saxton and D.M. Sabatini. “mTOR Signaling in Growth, Metabolism, and Disease,” Cell 168  (2017): 960.


“but all three at once because it alters the growth phase of the cell”

J.B. Mannick et al. “mTOR Inhibition Improves Immune Function in the Elderly,” Science Transl. Med. 6  (2014): 268ra179.


“key link between what’s in the cell versus what happens to the cell”

M. Perluigi et al. “mTOR Signaling in Aging and Neurodegeneration: At the Crossroad between Metabolism Dysfunction and Impairment of Autophagy,” Neurobiol. Dis. 84  (2015): 39.


“mTOR is the “holy grail” of cell fate”

D.M. Sabatini. “Twenty-Five Years of mTOR: Uncovering the Link from Nutrients to Growth,” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 (45) (2017): 11818.


“target of most current longevity drugs”

T. Weichhart. “mTOR as Regulator of Lifespan, Aging, and Cellular Senescence: A Mini-Review,” Gerontology 64 (2) (2018): 127.


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